The data in this occurrence resource has been published as a Darwin Core Archive (DwC-A), which is a standardized format for sharing biodiversity data as a set of one or more data tables. The core data table contains 1,808 records.
1 extension data tables also exist. An extension record supplies extra information about a core record. The number of records in each extension data table is illustrated below.
This IPT archives the data and thus serves as the data repository. The data and resource metadata are available for download in the downloads section. The versions table lists other versions of the resource that have been made publicly available and allows tracking changes made to the resource over time.
Download the latest version of this resource data as a Darwin Core Archive (DwC-A) or the resource metadata as EML or RTF:
The table below shows only published versions of the resource that are publicly accessible.
How to cite
Researchers should cite this work as follows:
Sturm H., O. Rangel. 1985. Ecologia de los Paramos Andinos: una visión preliminar integrada. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales - Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Bogota. 292p.
Researchers should respect the following rights statement:
The publisher and rights holder of this work is University of Amsterdam / IBED. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 License.
This resource has been registered with GBIF, and assigned the following GBIF UUID: 0d32a7f0-039c-4c8f-bea9-d7e55fd8e02b. University of Amsterdam / IBED publishes this resource, and is itself registered in GBIF as a data publisher endorsed by Netherlands Biodiversity Information Facility.
Paramo South America Ecuador Páramo vegetation Altitude Altitudinal zonation Réleve method Braun-Blanquet method Conservation Diversity; Occurrence; Observation; Occurrence
Who created the resource:
Who can answer questions about the resource:
Who filled in the metadata:
Who else was associated with the resource:
The study was done in the paramo of El Carchi province located in the high Andes of Northern Ecuador. The area is part of the so called "global epicecenter of biodiversity". The study also included the region of the volcanoes Chiles-Cumbal, this area is shared between Colombia and Ecuador and it is known as the "Northern volcanic Zone" The altitudinal range cover in the studies varies from 3430 m.a.sl. up to 4000m.a.sl.
|Bounding Coordinates||South West [-4.6, -81.21], North East [1.45, -76.9]|
All plants identified to species level. Vegetation including phanerogams, bryophytes and lichens.
|Kingdom||Plantae (Phanerogams), Plantae (Bryophytes), Fungi (Lichens)|
|Start Date / End Date||1981-01-01 / 2004-01-01|
No Description available
|Title||Data provided by two projects: 1. Andean Paramos Ecology by Sturm H., and O. Rangel 1985. 2. Phytosociological study of the paramo in the Carchi province by Moscol-Olivera M. and A. M. Cleef in 2009.|
|Funding||Sturm H., and O. Rangel 1985, funded by: Universidad Nacional de Colombia Insituto de Ciencias Naturales (ICN) from Universidad Nacional de Colombia Empresa de Acueducto y Alcantarillado de Bogota The German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) Fondo Colombiano de Insvestigaciones Cientificas (COLCIENCIAS) Hugo de Vries Laboratory (IBED-University of Amsterdam) Moscol-Olivera M. and A. M. Cleef, 2009, funded by: Grant WAN 84-572 from The Netherlands Foundation for the Advancement of Tropical Research -WOTRO/NWO, The Hague.|
The personnel involved in the project:
In the study done at the Cumbal-Chiles region, the vegetation sampling was done by the relevé method following the Braun-Blanquet principles. The relevé is a list of the plants in a delimited plot of vegetation, with information on species cover and on substrate and other abiotic features in the plot to make as complete as possible description in terms of community composition. Different releves were done at different altitudes in the Paramo. In El Carchi province following the criteria of Walter (1954) the vegetation sampling was done considered the subdivision made by soil-water regime into zonal and azonal paramo vegetation. Different plots of 5mx5m were established and the cover of all plants in 25m2 were recorded following the methodology of Mueller-Dombois and Ellenberg (1974). In both studies, the community vegetation releve data were converted into species occurrence data.
|Study Extent||The study was done in the paramo of El Carchi province located in the high Andes of Northern Ecuador. The area is part of the so called "global epicecenter of biodiversity". In El Carchi province the following sites were studies: Guandera Biological Reserve, located in the eastern cordillera 11 km east of San Gabriel El Angel Ecological Reserve, it is separated from Guandera by a agricultural central valley and it is located on the southern slopes of the volcanic El Voladero basin. Los Encinos Scientific Station, it is located adjacent to the El Angel Ecological Reserve. The study also included the region of the volcanoes Chiles-Cumbal, this area is shared between Colombia and Ecuador and it is known as the "Northern volcanic Zone". The altitudinal range cover in the studies varies from 3430 m.a.sl. up to 4000m.a.sl. The data was collected in the Cumbal area in July 1956 and October 1978 and in El Carchi province between April-December 2004 and January-March 2006.|
|Quality Control||The data stored in TurboVeg was checked to identify errors in the information or gaps needed to be filled. The two main fields identified to be checked/completed were the georeference data (Cumbal-Chiles) and the validation of the taxonomy of each species.|
Method step description:
- Releve data was stored in the software TurboVeg and then exported into species occurrence data. The species list used in TurboVeg was checked by an expert to confirm the valid taxonomy (taking into account taxonomy changes, synonyms, etc)(Guido van Reenen, paramo species list). This list was cross-checked with The Plant List (http://www.theplantlist.org/), for the period July 2011 until February 2013 (during this time frame the names where the accepted).
- Moscol-Olivera., M. and A.M. Cleef. 2009. A phytosociological study of the paramo along two altuitudinal transects in El Carchi province, northern Ecuador. Phytocoenologia, 39(1), 79-107. DOI:10.1127/0340-269X/2009/0039-0079
|Purpose||Purpose 1: Data in TurboVeg Purpose 2: data converted to species occurrence. Data repatriation to Colombia to be used in actual research.|