The Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics (IBED) from University of Amsterdam (UvA) has been working on the Paramos of Colombia since 1970, collecting information on different aspects of plant ecology. The Rabanal, Guerrero and Villa de Leyva paramo complex data set is generated from six sources. 1. Field data from professor Antoine Cleef (derived from his PhD thesis on paramo vegetation in the eastern cordillera (1981), the ECOANDES project and independent field trips), the data wascollected in four field campaigns in 1977, 1983, 1984 and 1989. 2.A study on Andean Paramo's ecology by H. Sturm and O. Rangel done in 1985. 3.A study on the phytosociological analysis of paramo vegetation by R. Sanchez and O. Rangel in 1990. 4. A study about the influence of potato cultivation in the paramo vegetatation by W. Ferwerda in 1987. 5. A study of limit vegetation ecology done by M.L. Becking and J.j. Smeets in 1989 part of the ECOANDES project. 6. A study on the description of paramo vegetation by R. Bekker and A. Cleef in 1985. All studies provide information on the occurrence and location of 7868 plant species from the Paramo in this area. For the purpose of the GBIF data-publishing, vegetation releve data were converted into species occurrence data.
The data in this occurrence resource has been published as a Darwin Core Archive (DwC-A), which is a standardized format for sharing biodiversity data as a set of one or more data tables. The core data table contains 7,868 records.
1 extension data tables also exist. An extension record supplies extra information about a core record. The number of records in each extension data table is illustrated below.
This IPT archives the data and thus serves as the data repository. The data and resource metadata are available for download in the downloads section. The versions table lists other versions of the resource that have been made publicly available and allows tracking changes made to the resource over time.
The table below shows only published versions of the resource that are publicly accessible.
How to cite
Researchers should cite this work as follows:
Cleef A. 1977, 1983, 1984, 1989. Field Data. Cleef. A.M. 1981. The vegetation of the paramos of the Colombian Cordillera Oriental. PhD Thesis. State University of Utrecht. 320pp. Also published as Dissertationes Botanicae, Baud 61, J. Cramer, Vadyz and "The Cuaternary of Colombia", Vol.9.
Researchers should respect the following rights statement:
The publisher and rights holder of this work is University of Amsterdam / IBED. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 License.
This resource has been registered with GBIF, and assigned the following GBIF UUID: 6fe8dde0-7ef1-41c0-ba0f-ecf41ac2d342. University of Amsterdam / IBED publishes this resource, and is itself registered in GBIF as a data publisher endorsed by Netherlands Biodiversity Information Facility.
Colombia Andean Paramos Páramo vegetation Rabanal paramo Guerrero paramo complex Altitude Réleve method Braun-Blanquet method Conservation; Occurrence; Observation; Occurrence
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The area includes the complex of Rabanal and Guerrero, it is located in the eastern cordillera in the provinces of Boyaca and Cundinamarca in Colombia. The Rabanal paramo is located in the biggest plateau of the country, called "Altiplano Cundiboyacense" in the municipalities of Lenguazaque, Guachetá, Villapinzón (Cundinarmaca) and Samacá, Ráquira and Ventaquemada (Boyaca). The altitudinal range varies from 2.690m.a.s.l. up to 3.500m.a.s.l. The Guerrero complex is located in north side of the Cundinamarca province and includes the municipalities of Carmen de Carupa, Tausa, Zipaquirá, Subachoque, Cogua, Pacho, San Cayetano y Susa. The altitudinal range varies from 3.200m.a.s.l. up to 3.780m.a.s.l.
|Bounding Coordinates||South West [4.93, -74.23], North East [5.68, -73.28]|
All plants identified to species level. Vegetation including phanerogams, bryophytes and lichens.
|Kingdom||Plantae (Phanerogams), Plantae (Bryophytes), Fungi (Lichens)|
|Start Date / End Date||1976-01-01 / 1989-01-01|
No Description available
|Title||Data provided by six projects. 1. Field data from A. Cleef (PhD thesis on paramo vegetation in the eastern cordillera, 1981) and the ECOANDES project. 2. Andean Paramos Ecology by Sturm H., and O. Rangel 1985. 3. Estudio de la Bioflora de los Páramos de los alrededores de Bogota (R. Sanchez and O. Rangel, 1990). 4. Influence of potato cultivation in the paramo vegetation by W. Ferwerda, 1987 part of the ECOANDES project. 5. Limit vegetation ecology by M.L. Becking and J.j. Smeets, 1989 part of the ECOANDES project. 6. Description of paramo vegetation by R. Bekker and A. Cleef , 1985.|
|Funding||A. Cleef field data funded by: Institute of Systematic Botany at Utrecht University. Hugo de Vries Laboratoty at Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics - IBED The Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research-NWO, with the Netherlands Foundation for the Advancement of Tropical Research-WOTRO Sturm H., and O. Rangel 1985, funded by: Universidad Nacional de Colombia Insituto de Ciencias Naturales (ICN) from Universidad Nacional de Colombia Empresa de Acueducto y Alcantarillado de Bogota The German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) Fondo Colombiano de Insvestigaciones Cientificas (COLCIENCIAS) Hugo de Vries Laboratory (IBED-University of Amsterdam) R. Sanchez and O. Rangel, 1990 funded by: Estudio de la Bioflora de los Páramos de los alrededores de Bogota project Instituto de Ciencias Naturales (ICN), Universidad Nacional de Colombia. W. Ferwerda, 1987 (part ECOANDES project see at the end funding information) but also funded by The Melchior Treub Stichting, Amsterdam. M.L. Becking and J.j. Smeets, 1989 ( part of ECOANDES project see at the end funding information) R. Bekker and A. Cleef , 1985. Funded by Hugo de Vries Laboratoty at Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics - IBED ECOANDES project funded by: Insituto geografico "Agustin Codazzi" (Colombia), Insituto de Ciencias Naturales-ICN from Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Hugo de Vries Laboratory (IBED-University of Amsterdam) and Netherlands Foundation for the Advancement of Tropical Research-WOTRO (Grant No. W84-188).|
|Study Area Description||The area includes the complex of Rabanal and Guerrero, it is located in the eastern cordillera in the provinces of Boyaca and Cundinamarca. The Rabanal paramo is located in the biggest plateau of the country, called "Altiplano Cundiboyacense" in the municipalities of Lenguazaque, Guachetá, Villapinzón (Cundinarmaca) and Samacá, Ráquira and Ventaquemada (Boyaca). The altitudinal range varies from 2.690m.a.s.l. up to 3.500m.a.s.l. The Guerrero complex is located in north side of the Cundinamarca province and includes the municipalities of Carmen de Carupa, Tausa, Zipaquirá, Subachoque, Cogua, Pacho, San Cayetano y Susa. The altitudinal range varies from 3.200m.a.s.l. up to 3.780m.a.s.l. The altitudinal range of the vegetation data varies from 2450 m.a.s.l. up to 4350m. a.s.l. The area considers biomas like grassparamo, subparamo (also dry subparamo)and superparamo with vegetation types such as peat deposits and bunchgrass. Nowadays, both Rabanal and Guerrero paramo complexes are highly modified due to human intervention (land use change).|
|Design Description||The method used for paramo vegetation sampling was based on the Braun-Blanquet or Zürich-Montpellier schools which take the relevé as the main sampling unit. The releves were made of zonal and azonal paramo vegetation. The Braun-Blanquet method is based on dominant species that are grouped in associations and then at a higher level in alliances. This is the standard methodology used in Europe, South Africa, United States, Japan and in the world in general. One of the final goals of the methodology mainly in Europe is to get to nature conservation, which is also the goal in the Colombian paramos.|
The personnel involved in the project:
The vegetation sampling was done by the relevé method following the Braun-Blanquet principles. The relevé is a list of the plants in a delimited plot of vegetation, with information on species cover and on substrate and other abiotic features in the plot to make as complete as possible description in terms of community composition. Different releves were done at different altitudes in the Paramo. The community vegetation releve data were converted into species occurrence data.
|Study Extent||The area includes the complex of Rabanal and Guerrero and also part of Villa de Leyva, it is located in the eastern cordillera in the provinces of Boyaca and Cundinamarca. The sampling sites included in Cundinamarca the paramo of Laguna Verde, San Cayetano-Cogua (hill sides of upper Guandoque river valley), Neusa (dam), Guarga and in Boyaca: Villa de Leyva (road between vereda Candelaria - via La Mina). The data was collected by different projects and dates between 1976 and 1989.|
|Quality Control||The data stored in TurboVeg was checked to identify errors in the information or gaps needed to be filled. The two main fields identified to be checked/completed were the georeference data and the validation of the taxonomy of each species. Also the gaps in terms of the precision of the georeference data were filled.|
Method step description:
- Releve data was stored in the software TurboVeg and then exported into species occurrence data. The species list used in TurboVeg was checked by an expert to confirm the valid taxonomy (taking into account taxonomy changes, synonyms, etc)(Guido van Reenen, paramo species list). This list was cross-checked with The Plant List (http://www.theplantlist.org/), for the period July 2011 until February 2013 (during this time frame the names where the accepted). Many of the data was lacking a georeference, precision of the georeference data and specific habitat indication. In 2012 to improve the dataset quality, it was completed as detail and precise as possible using several online resources, consultation with experts and revision of the original data. The georeference data was completed mainly with the use of Google Maps, in collaboration with A. Cleef and checking the original field notes and the publications.
- Sturm H., O. Rangel. 1985. Ecologia de los Paramos Andinos: una visión preliminar integrada. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales - Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Bogota. 292p. n/a
- Sanchez-M., R. and O. Rangel-Ch. 1990. Estudios ecologicos en la cordillera oriental colombiana V. Analisis fitosociológico de la vegetación de los depositos turbosos paramunos de los alrededores de Bogotá. Caldasia 16 (77): 155-192. n/a
- Ferwerda, W. 1987. The influence of potato cultivation on the natural bunchgrass paramo in the Colombian Cordillera Oriental. Internal Report no. 220. Hugo de Vries Laboratory. University of Amsterdam. n/a
- Becking, M.L. and J.J.H.R. Smeets. 1988. A compartive study of forest limit vegetation ecology in a relatively dry climate (NEUSA) and in a relatively wet climate (CHINGAZA) in the Cordillera Oriental, Colombia. ECOANDES report n/a
- Bekker, R. and A.M. Cleef. 1985. La vegetación del Paramo de la Laguna Verde (municipio de Tausa, Cundinamarca). Análisis geográficos No. 14. Instituto geografico Agustin Codazzi - IGAC. Bogota. 193p. n/a
|Purpose||Purpose 1: Data in TurboVeg Purpose 2: data converted to species occurrence. Data repatriation to Colombia to be used in actual research.|