The Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics (IBED) from University of Amsterdam (UvA) has been working on the Paramos of Colombia since 1970, collecting information on different aspects of plant ecology. The Western Cordillera dataset is generated from 5 sources: 1. A study about the paramo vegetation in the Nariño volcanoes, Orlando Rangel-Ch and Clara Ariza published in 2000. 2. A study by Helmut Sturm and Orlando Rangel in 1985 about the ecology of andean paramos, in the volcanoes of Cumbal and Chiles. 3 and 4. The field data from professor Antoine Cleef (1984) with Sonia Salamanca under the ECOANDES project (Tatama transect), collected in the upper part of Tatama massif. Also data collected (in 1983) under the same project by T. van der Hammen, O. Rangel and A. Cleef and published in a study of the paramo vegetation of the Tatama massif in 2005. 5. A study about sinecology, diversity and conservation of Andean vegetation in Argelia, Cauca published in 1995 by M.L. Becking. All studies provide information on the occurrence and location of 2983 plant species from the Paramo in this area collected in 139 releves. For the purpose of the GBIF data-publishing, vegetation releve data were converted into species occurrence data.
此資源出現紀錄的資料已發佈為達爾文核心集檔案（DwC-A），其以一或多組資料表構成分享生物多樣性資料的標準格式。 核心資料表包含 2,983 筆紀錄。
亦存在 1 筆延伸集的資料表。延伸集中的紀錄補充核心集中紀錄的額外資訊。 每個延伸集資料表中資料筆數顯示如下。
下載最新版本的 Darwin Core Archive (DwC-A) 資源，或資源詮釋資料的 EML 或 RTF 文字檔。
Rangel-Ch., O and Ariza N. C. 2000. La vegetacion paramuna de los volcanes de Nariño. In: Colombia Diversidad Biotica III, la región de Vida paramuna de Colombia. Rangel-Ch. J.O. 2000. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Editorial Unibiblios. Bogotá, Colombia.
此資料的發布者及權利單位為 University of Amsterdam / IBED。 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 License.
Colombia Andean Paramos Tatama Frontino Galeras; Chiles; Cumbal volcanos Páramo vegetation Altitude Réleve method Braun-Blanquet method Conservation Diversity; Occurrence; Observation; Occurrence
The western cordillera starts at Nudo de los Pastos (Nariño) and it goes along the Pacific coast and ends up splitting at three small mountains called from west to east Abibe, San Jerónimo, and Ayapel (Antioquia). It is the shortest cordillera and the second in extension with 1095 km, the surface covers 76000 km2. The highest point is found in the south of the mountain range at Cumbal Volcano that reaches 4764 meters above sea level. At west, it delimits with the Pacific plain and at east with the valley of Cauca River. The data was collected in the municipalities of Nariño, Cauca, Risaralda and Choco. the It includes the Tatama-Frontino complex as well as the volcanos of Chiles, Cumbal and Galeras. The altitudinal range of the data varies from 2860 m.a.s.l. up to 4100 m.a.s.l.
|界定座標範圍||緯度南界 經度西界 [0.8, -78.12], 緯度北界 經度東界 [7.42, -75.87]|
All plants identified to species level. Vegetation including phanerogams, bryophytes and lichens.
|Kingdom||Plantae (Phanerogams), Plantae (Bryophytes), Fungi (Lichens)|
|起始日期 / 結束日期||1977-01-01 / 1992-01-01|
|計畫名稱||The data is originated from 4 sources, not from a single project. 1. Paramo vegetation in the Nariño volcanoes, Rangel-Ch O and C. Ariza, 2000. 2. Ecology of andean paramos (Cumbal and Chiles volcanoes) by Sturm H. and O. Rangel, 1985. 3 and 4. ECOANDES project vol.6 (Tatama transect), 2005. 5. Sinecology, diversity and conservation of Andean vegetation in Argelia, Cauca, 1995 by M.L. Becking.|
|經費來源||Rangel, O. and Ariza C., 2000. Literature study funded by Instituto Alexander von Humboldt, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Instituto de Ciencias Naturales (ICN)-Universidad Nacional De Colombia. Sturm H., and O. Rangel 1985, funded by: Universidad Nacional de Colombia Insituto de Ciencias Naturales (ICN) from Universidad Nacional de Colombia Empresa de Acueducto y Alcantarillado de Bogota The German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) Fondo Colombiano de Insvestigaciones Cientificas (COLCIENCIAS) Hugo de Vries Laboratory (IBED-University of Amsterdam) Dierikx L. and M. Kaandorp, 1986 funded by University of Amsterdam (Werkgroep Studiereizen Ontwikkelingslanden (WSO), The Hague and the Vakgroep Bijzondere Plankunde. ECOANDES project funded by: Insituto geografico "Agustin Codazzi" (Colombia), Insituto de Ciencias Naturales-ICN from Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Hugo de Vries Laboratory (IBED-University of Amsterdam) and Netherlands Foundation for the Advancement of Tropical Research-WOTRO (Grant No. W84-188). M.L. Becking, 1995. Funded by: Treub Fonds, Paramillos phase I, The Netherlands. Hugo de Vries fonds, Paramillos phase II, The Netherlands Proyecto Biopacifico, Colombia Fondo FEN, Colombia|
|研究區域描述||The area includes the paramo complex Chiles - Cumbal (Chiles, Cumbal, Azufral volcanoes), also the Galeras volcano in the Nariño province. And the Tatama - Frontino complex, also the Paramillos in Argelia, in the provinces of Cauca, Choco and Risaralda. The volcanoes of Cumbal (4760m), Chiles (4764m), Azufral (4070m)and Galeras (4276m) are located in the municipalities of Cumbal, Chiles, Tuquerres and Pasto, Sandona, Consaca and Yacuanquer,Florida, Ancuya, Tangua, El Encanto, Guaitaerilla, Tuquerres, Guachucal and Carlosama. For the Tatama area, it includes the paramo located on the upper part of the Tatama massif (4100m) which is placed in the central part of the western cordillera. The paramo is located along the border of the provinces of Risaralda and Choco. The vegetation study in the Cauca province, had a focus in the Cerro Plateado in de municipality of Argelia. Particularly in the high watershed of the Plateado river (which joints the San Juan de Micay rivers) The vegetation studied included species from middle paramo, subparamo and superparamo ecosystems. With releves of zonal, extrazonal and azonal paramo vegetation. At the time of studies most of the paramo vegetation in the area was not known.|
|研究設計描述||The method used for paramo vegetation sampling was based on the Braun-Blanquet or Zürich-Montpellier schools which take the relevé as the main sampling unit. The releves were made of zonal and azonal paramo vegetation. The Braun-Blanquet method is based on dominant species that are grouped in associations and then at a higher level in alliances. This is the standard methodology used in Europe, SouthAfrica, United States, Japan and in the world in general. One of the final goals of the methodology mainly in Europe is to get to nature conservation, which is also the goal in the Colombian paramos.|
The vegetation sampling was done by the relevé method following the Braun-Blanquet principles. The relevé is a list of the plants in a delimited plot of vegetation, with information on species cover and on substrate and other abiotic features in the plot to make as complete as possible description in terms of community composition. Different releves were done at different altitudes in the Paramo. The community vegetation releve data were converted into species occurrence data.
|研究範圍||The study was done in the paramo of the volcanoes of Cumbal, Chiles, Azufral and Galeras. For the Tatama area, it includes the paramo located on the upper part of the Tatama massif (4100m) which is placed in the central part of the western cordillera. It includes the Tatama Cerro, El Encanato, Las Brisas, Las Mirlas, Don Pepe, Valle de los Lagos, Pantano rojo and San Francisco. The area is part of the National Natural Park Tatamá. The vegetation study in the Cauca province, had a focus in the Cerro Plateado in the municipality of Argelia. Particularly in the high watershed of the San Juan de Micay river which is Plateado river. The sampling campaigns for studies were done between 1977 and 1992.|
|品質控管||The data stored in TurboVeg was checked to identify errors in the information or gaps needed to be filled. The two main fields identified to be checked/completed were the georeference data (including precision) and the validation of the taxonomy of each species. The georeference information still needs to be completed.|
- Releve data was stored in the software TurboVeg and then exported into species occurrence data. The species list used in TurboVeg was checked by an expert to confirm the valid taxonomy (taking into account taxonomy changes, synonyms, etc)(Guido van Reenen, paramo species list). This list was cross-checked with The Plant List (http://www.theplantlist.org/), for the period July 2011 until February 2013 (during this time frame the names where the accepted). A big part of the records are still lacking a georeference with its precision estimation. Also the specific habitat indication needs to be done.
- Sturm H., O. Rangel. 1985. Ecologia de los Paramos Andinos: una visión preliminar integrada. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales - Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Bogota. 292p. n/a
- Becking, M.L. 1995. Sinecologia, diversidad y conservacion de la vegetacion altoandina en el sur de la Cordillera Occidental, Argelia, Cauca. Informe Final. Fondo FEN-Colombia - Proyecto Biopacifico. Popayan, Colombia. 57p. n/a
- Cleef, A., Rangel, O. Salamanca, S., Ariza, C and G. van Reenen. 2005. La vegetacion del paramo del Macizo de Tatamá, Cordillera Occidental, Colombia. In: La Cordillera Occidental Colombiana, transecto Tatama. Studies on Tropical Andean Ecosystems, Vol. 6. van der Hammen, Rangel O and A. Cleef (eds). J. Cramer. Berlin. 972p. ISBN 3-443-50028-5
|目的||Purpose 1: Data in TurboVeg Purpose 2: data converted to species occurrence. Data repatriation to Colombia to be used in actual research.|