The Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics (IBED) from University of Amsterdam (UvA) has been working on the Paramos of Colombia since 1970, collecting information on different aspects of plant ecology in the paramo. The Central Cordillera area include the National Natural Park Los Nevados, National Natural Park Purace and Nevado del Huila. This dataset is generated from 5 sources: 1. A study by Helmut Sturm and Orlando Rangel in 1985 about the ecology of Andean paramos, in the National Natural Park Los Nevados and in the Nevado del Huila (Huila volcano). 2. A study of monitoring and modelling of diverse and dynamic ecosystems in the paramos of los Nevados National Park by Bob Pels in 1990. 3. A Ph.D. study about the vegetation of the paramo and its dynamics in the volcanic massif Ruiz-Tolima, done by Sonia Salamanca in 1991, this project was part of a bigger project called ECOANDES which cover different aspects of the ecology of the central cordillera in Colombia. 4.A study on the phytosociology of plant communities of the National Natural Park Purace, done by Andres Duque in 1988. All studies provided information on the occurrence and location of 6947 plant species from the Paramo in this area collected in 332 releves. For the purpose of the GBIF data-publishing, vegetation releve data were converted into species occurrence data.
The data in this occurrence resource has been published as a Darwin Core Archive (DwC-A), which is a standardized format for sharing biodiversity data as a set of one or more data tables. The core data table contains 6,947 records.
1 extension data tables also exist. An extension record supplies extra information about a core record. The number of records in each extension data table is illustrated below.
This IPT archives the data and thus serves as the data repository. The data and resource metadata are available for download in the downloads section. The versions table lists other versions of the resource that have been made publicly available and allows tracking changes made to the resource over time.
The table below shows only published versions of the resource that are publicly accessible.
How to cite
Researchers should cite this work as follows:
Sturm H., O. Rangel. 1985. Ecologia de los Paramos Andinos: una visión preliminar integrada. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales - Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Bogota. 292p.
Researchers should respect the following rights statement:
The publisher and rights holder of this work is University of Amsterdam / IBED. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY 4.0) License.
This resource has been registered with GBIF, and assigned the following GBIF UUID: c8db36cf-6b3e-403f-b609-dc0b6ef0cc05. University of Amsterdam / IBED publishes this resource, and is itself registered in GBIF as a data publisher endorsed by Netherlands Biodiversity Information Facility.
Colombia Andean Paramos National Natural Park Los Nevados Natiioanl Natural Park Nevado del Huila National Natural Park Purace Páramo vegetation Altitude Altitudinal zonation Réleve method Braun-Blanquet method Conservation Diversity Zonal and azonal vegetation; Occurrence; Observation; Occurrence
- Originator ●
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Central Cordillera begins in the area called Macizo Colombiano between Cauca and Huila and ends up at the Serranía San Lucas (Bolivar). The extension is 1000km and it covers a surface of 110.000km2. Two main rivers are the limits of the mountain range, west by Cauca and east by Magdalena river. The highest point is located at Nevado del Huila which reaches 5750 meters above sea level. Is the most volcanic mountain range, the volcanos Galeras, Sotará, Puracé, Huila, Tolima, and Santa Isabel are found in central cordillera. The data was collected in the area of the National Natural Park Los Nevados which is part of four provinces covering the municipalities of Villamaría (Caldas province), Pereira, Santa Rosa de Cabal (Risaralda province), Salento (Quindio province), Anzoátegui, Casabianca, Villa Hermosa, Santa Isabel, Murillo, Herveo e Ibagué (Tolima province). Also the National Natural Park Nevado del Huila was studied and is located between the provinces of Cauca (municipalities Páez, Corinto and Toribio), Huila (municipalities of Teruel, Iquira and Santamaría) and in Tolima (municipalities of Planadas and Rioblanco) And finally the National Natural Park Purace located in the Cauca and Huila provinces. Includes the municipalities of San Sebastián, Santa Rosa, Puracé, Inzá, Sotará and Totoró in Cauca and the municipalities of La Argentina, La Plata, Isnos, Saladoblanco and San Agustín in Huila. The altitudinal range of the data goes from 2650m.a.s.l. up to 4650m.a.s.l.
|Bounding Coordinates||South West [1.6, -76.63], North East [5, -75.04]|
All plants identified to species level. Vegetation including phanerogams, bryophytes and lichens.
|Kingdom||Plantae (Phanerogams), Plantae (Bryophytes), Fungi (Lichens)|
|Start Date / End Date||1976-01-01 / 1986-01-01|
No Description available
|Title||The data is originated from 4 sources, not from a single project. 1. Ecology of andean Paramos, H. Sturm and O. Rangel, 1985. 2. Monitoring and modelling of diverse and dynamic ecosystems in the paramos of los Nevados National Park, B. Pels, 1990 (part of ECOANDES). 3. Vegetation of the paramo and its dynamics in the volcanic massif Ruiz-Tolima, S. Salamanca, 1991 (part of ECOANDES project) 4. Phytosociology of plant communities of the National Natural Park Purace, A. Duque, 1988 (as part of the management plan of the park).|
|Funding||Sturm H., and O. Rangel 1985, funded by: Universidad Nacional de Colombia Insituto de Ciencias Naturales (ICN) from Universidad Nacional de Colombia Empresa de Acueducto y Alcantarillado de Bogota The German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) Fondo Colombiano de Insvestigaciones Cientificas (COLCIENCIAS) Hugo de Vries Laboratory (IBED-University of Amsterdam) B. Pels, 1990 funded by: Hugo de Vries Laboratory (IBED-University of Amsterdam) Insituto de Ciencias Naturales (ICN) from Universidad Nacional de Colombia Instituto Colombiano de Desarrollo de los Recursos Naturales Renovables - INDERENA, Colombia (this institute was closed in 1993) Instituto de Investigaciones en Geociencias, Minería y Química - INGEOMINAS, Colombia (currently called Servicio Geológico Colombiano) Instituto Geografico Agustin Codazzi - IGAC, Colombia S. Salamanca, 1991 funded by Instituto Geografico Agustin Codazzi - IGAC, Colombia Netherlands Foundation for the Advancement of Tropical Research - WOTRO, The Netherlands. A. Duque, 1988 funded by Fundación Universitarioa de Popayan, Colombia Instituto Colombiano de Desarrollo de los Recursos Naturales Renovables - INDERENA, Colombia (this institute was closed in 1993) ECOANDES project funded by: Insituto geografico "Agustin Codazzi" (Colombia), Insituto de Ciencias Naturales-ICN from Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Hugo de Vries Laboratory (IBED-University of Amsterdam) and Netherlands Foundation for the Advancement of Tropical Research-WOTRO (Grant No. W84-188).|
|Study Area Description||The data was collected in the area of the National Natural Park Los Nevados (central cordillera) in an altitudinal range between 3800m and 4500m. The Ruiz-Tolima volcanic massif was studied including sites such as the Santa Rosa, Santa Isabel volcanoes, the Ruiz paramo and the Otun lake. The studied also included The National Natural Park Nevado del Huila located in the provinces of Huila , Tolima and Cauca and The National Natural Park Purace located in the Cauca and Huila provinces. The altitudinal range of the data goes from 2650m.a.s.l. up to 4650m.a.s.l. The vegetation studied included species from middle paramo, subparamo and superparamo ecosystems. With releves of zonal, extrazonal and azonal paramo vegetation. At the time of studies most of the paramo vegetation in the area was not known. Also the impact of volcanic eruptions on the floristic composition, structure and spatial distribution of the vegetation was studied.|
|Design Description||The method used for paramo vegetation sampling was based on the Braun-Blanquet or Zürich-Montpellier schools which take the relevé as the main sampling unit. The releves were made of zonal and azonal paramo vegetation. The Braun-Blanquet method is based on dominant species that are grouped in associations and then at a higher level in alliances. This is the standard methodology used in Europe, South Africa, United States, Japan and in the world in general. One of the final goals of the methodology mainly in Europe is to get to nature conservation, which is also the goal in the Colombian paramos.|
The personnel involved in the project:
- Point Of Contact
The vegetation sampling was done by the relevé method following the Braun-Blanquet principles. The relevé is a list of the plants in a delimited plot of vegetation, with information on species cover and on substrate and other abiotic features in the plot to make as complete as possible description in terms of community composition. Different releves were done at different altitudes in the Paramo. The community vegetation releve data were converted into species occurrence data.
|Study Extent||The data was collected in the area of the National Natural Park Los Nevados (central cordillera) in an altitudinal range between 3800m and 4500m. The Ruiz-Tolima volcanic massif was studied including sites such as the Santa Rosa, Santa Isabel volcanoes, the Ruiz paramo and the Otun lake. In the National Natural Park Los Nevados, specifically at the Ruiz paramo the studied were done close by motel "El Refugio", "El Silencio" farm in Laguna Verde which is located between the volcanoes of Ruiz and Santa Isabel and also close to the road between Fresno - Manizales. Also the National Natural Park Nevado del Huila, the localities included the area closed to the road between Belalcazar - Cali about 2950m up to the site known as Irlanda. And finally the National Natural Park Purace located in the Cauca and Huila provinces. Includes the municipalities of San Sebastián, Santa Rosa, Puracé, Inzá, Sotará and Totoró in Cauca and the municipalities of La Argentina, La Plata, Isnos, Saladoblanco and San Agustín in Huila.|
|Quality Control||The data stored in TurboVeg was checked to identify errors in the information or gaps needed to be filled. The two main fields identified to be checked/completed were the georeference data (including precision) and the validation of the taxonomy of each species. The georeference information still needs to be completed.|
Method step description:
- Releve data was stored in the software TurboVeg and then exported into species occurrence data. The species list used in TurboVeg was checked by an expert to confirm the valid taxonomy (taking into account taxonomy changes, synonyms, etc)(Guido van Reenen, paramo species list). This list was cross-checked with The Plant List (http://www.theplantlist.org/), for the period July 2011 until February 2013 (during this time frame the names where the accepted). A big part of the records are still lacking a georeference with its precision estimation. Also the specific habitat indication needs to be done.
- Pels, B. 1990. Monitoring and modellimg of diverse and dynamic ecosystems. The case of the paramos and andean forests of Los Nevados National Park, Colombia. University of Amsterdam. The Netherlands. n/a
- Salamanca, S. 1991. The vegetation of the paramo and its dynamics in the volcanic massif Ruiz/Tolima (Cordillera Central, Colombia). PhD report. Hugo de Vries Laboratory. University of Amsterdam. The Netherlands. 121p n/a
- Duque, A. 1988. Comunidades vegetales del Parque Nacional Natural Purace. Una aproximacion fitosociológica. Report Proyecto Plan de Manejor del Parque Purace. Convenio Fundacion Universitaria de Popayan - INDERENA. Popayan, Colombia. 61p. n/a
- Salamanca, S., A.m. Cleef and O. Rangel-Ch. 2003. The paramo vegetation of the volcanic Ruiz-Tolima massif. 1-77p. In: Studies on Tropical Andean Ecosystems: La Cordillera Central Colombiana, Transecto Parque de los Nevados, Vol.5. (van der Hammen, T. and A. G. dos Santos Eds). Berlin ISBN 3-443-65004-X
|Purpose||Purpose 1: Data in TurboVeg Purpose 2: data converted to species occurrence. Data repatriation to Colombia to be used in actual research.|