The Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics (IBED) from University of Amsterdam (UvA) has been working on the Paramos of Colombia since 1970, collecting information on different aspects of plant ecology. The Santa Marta and Perijá paramo complex dataset is generated from five sources. 1. A study on the vegetation of tropical ecosystems, in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, particularly in the sector Buritaca - La Cumbre, by A. Cleef and O. Rangel in 1984 (in van der Hammen and Ruiz, 1984). 2. A study on Andean Paramo's ecology by H. Sturm and O. Rangel done in 1985. 3. Field data from professor Antoine Cleef derived from the ECOANDES project) in 1984 4. A study about the paramo vegetation in the north of Colombia (Sierra nevada de Santa Marta and Serrania Perija) by J.H. Pinto-Zarate and O. Rangel-Ch in 2010. 5. A study about the high mountain vegetation of Perija, done by O. Rangel-Ch and H. Arrellano-P in 2007. All studies provide information on the occurrence and location of 1506 plant species from the Paramo in this area sampled in 91 releves. For the purpose of the GBIF data-publishing, vegetation releve data were converted into species occurrence data.
The data in this occurrence resource has been published as a Darwin Core Archive (DwC-A), which is a standardized format for sharing biodiversity data as a set of one or more data tables. The core data table contains 1,506 records.
1 extension data tables also exist. An extension record supplies extra information about a core record. The number of records in each extension data table is illustrated below.
This IPT archives the data and thus serves as the data repository. The data and resource metadata are available for download in the downloads section. The versions table lists other versions of the resource that have been made publicly available and allows tracking changes made to the resource over time.
The table below shows only published versions of the resource that are publicly accessible.
How to cite
Researchers should cite this work as follows:
Cleef, A.M. and O. Rangel-Ch. 1984. La Vegetacion del paramo del noroeste de la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (203-265p). In: van der Hammen T and Ruiz, P. (eds). Estudios de Ecosistemas Tropandinos: La Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (Colombia), Transecto Buritaca - La Cumbre. Vol 2. Berlin. 603p.
Researchers should respect the following rights statement:
The publisher and rights holder of this work is University of Amsterdam / IBED. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY 4.0) License.
This resource has been registered with GBIF, and assigned the following GBIF UUID: aa53b19b-ee49-4ff6-963d-2d9499808b72. University of Amsterdam / IBED publishes this resource, and is itself registered in GBIF as a data publisher endorsed by Netherlands Biodiversity Information Facility.
Colombia Andean Paramos Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta Serrania Perijá (massif) Páramo vegetation Altitude Altitudinal zonation Réleve method Braun-Blanquet method Conservation Diversity; Occurrence; Observation; Occurrence
- Originator ●
- Point Of Contact
- Metadata Provider
Santa Marta is a mountain range located in the north of Colombia (Magdalena province), which is isolated from the rest of the Andes. It is the highest seaboard mountain system of the world, and reaches 5775 meters above sea level and the distance from the Caribbean sea is only 42 km. The surface covers 17000 km2. The Perijá massif goes along the limit between Colombia and Venezuela (Norte de Santander, Cesar, and Guajira provinces). It covers a surface of 2952 km2, with a extension of 310km. The highest point is found at 3750 meters above sea level. The páramo and forest vegetation similarities with Santa Marta suggest a past corridor and biological flux between both mountain ranges.
|South West [8.51, -74.29], North East [11.38, -72.02]
All plants identified to species level. Vegetation including phanerogams, bryophytes and lichens.
|Plantae (Phanerogams), Plantae (Bryophytes), Fungi (Lichens)
|Start Date / End Date
|1976-01-01 / 2006-01-01
No Description available
|The Santa Marta and Perijá paramo complex data set is generated from five sources not from a single project. 1. ECOANDES project, Ecology and paleoecology of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta by A. Cleef and O. Rangel in 1984 (in van der Hammen and Ruiz, 1984, ECOANDES Vol. 2). 2. Ecology of andean Paramos, H. Sturm and O. Rangel, 1985. 3. Field data from professor Antoine Cleef derived from the ECOANDES project) in 1984 4. Valoracion de la biodiversidad del Caribe colombiano: Sintesis del conocimiento y servicios ambientales (Sierra nevada de Santa Marta and Serrania Perija) by J.H. Pinto-Zarate and O. Rangel-Ch in 2010 (in Rangel-Ch, O. 2010). 5. Environmental Zonation for the Cesar province, a study about the high mountain vegetation of Perija, done by O. Rangel-Ch and H. Arrellano-P in 2007.
|1. ECOANDES project by A. Cleef and O. Rangel in 1984 (in van der Hammen and Ruiz, 1984, ECOANDES Vol. 2), funded by: Instituto Colombiano de Desarrollo de los Recursos Naturales Renovables - INDERENA, Colombia (this institute was closed in 1993) Insituto de Ciencias Naturales (ICN) from Universidad Nacional de Colombia Instituto Colombiano de Antropología Instituto de Investigaciones en Geociencias, Minería y Química - INGEOMINAS, Colombia (currently called Servicio Geológico Colombiano) Hugo de Vries Laboratory (IBED-University of Amsterdam) Institute of Systematic Botany at Utrecht University. The Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research-NWO, with the Netherlands Foundation for the Advancement of Tropical Research-WOTRO 2. Sturm H., and O. Rangel 1985, funded by: Universidad Nacional de Colombia Insituto de Ciencias Naturales (ICN) from Universidad Nacional de Colombia Empresa de Acueducto y Alcantarillado de Bogota The German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) Fondo Colombiano de Insvestigaciones Cientificas (COLCIENCIAS) Hugo de Vries Laboratory (IBED-University of Amsterdam) 3. Field data from professor Antoine Cleef derived from the ECOANDES project) in 1984 Hugo de Vries Laboratory (IBED-University of Amsterdam) Institute of Systematic Botany at Utrecht University. The Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research-NWO, with the Netherlands Foundation for the Advancement of Tropical Research-WOTRO 4. Valoracion de la biodiversidad del Caribe colombiano: Sintesis del conocimiento y servicios ambientales (Sierra nevada de Santa Marta and Serrania Perija) by J.H. Pinto-Zarate and O. Rangel-Ch in 2010 (in Rangel-Ch, O. 2010) funded by: Insituto de Ciencias Naturales (ICN) from Universidad Nacional de Colombia DIB-Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota 5. Environmental Zonation for the Cesar province, by O. Rangel-Ch and H. Arrellano-P in 2007, funded by: Corporacion Autónoma Regional del Cesar, CORPOCESAR
|Study Area Description
|The studies were done in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta - SNSM which covers the provinces of Magdalena, Cesar and La Guajira, particularly in the north side of the mountain complex following the transect between Buritaca - La Cumbre. Also the south side was studied in the area of San Sebastian de Rabago. The paramo in the SNSM covers an altitudinal range between 3300m.a.s.l. up to 5100m.a.s.l, covering zonal and azonal vegetation in the subparamo, grassparamo and superparamo. In the Serrania del Perija, the paramos studied are located in an area of 4500ha in the provinces of Cesar and La Guajira. And the paramo is located between 3100m.a.s.l and 3500m.a.s.l. Only the subparamo and grassparamo are present, and there is no superparamo bioma in the Perija area. The data was collected between 1976 and 2006.
|The method used for paramo vegetation sampling was based on the Braun-Blanquet or Zürich-Montpellier schools which take the relevé as the main sampling unit. The releves were made of zonal and azonal paramo vegetation. The Braun-Blanquet method is based on dominant species that are grouped in associations and then at a higher level in alliances. This is the standard methodology used in Europe, South Africa, United States, Japan and in the world in general. One of the final goals of the methodology mainly in Europe is to get to nature conservation, which is also the goal in the Colombian paramos.
The personnel involved in the project:
- Point Of Contact
The vegetation sampling was done by the relevé method following the Braun-Blanquet principles. The relevé is a list of the plants in a delimited plot of vegetation, with information on species cover and on substrate and other abiotic features in the plot to make as complete as possible description in terms of community composition. Different releves were done at different altitudes in the Paramo. The community vegetation releve data were converted into species occurrence data.
|In the SNSM the sampling sites on the north side included the Cerro Buritaca, Cuchilla Guine, Cuchilla La Cimarrona, La Cumbre. And on the south side San Sebatian de Rabago, Duriameina, Balcon de Bellavista and La Perdida lagoon. The floristic and structural characterization of the vegetation in the high mountians (paramo) of the Serrania de Perija included the localities of Cerro Pintao, El Avion-Casa de Vidrio, San Jose de Oriente, Sabana Rubia, Cerro Tres Tetas, Cuchilla Yipumo.
|The data stored in TurboVeg was checked to identify errors in the information or gaps needed to be filled. The two main fields identified to be completed were the georeference data (including precision) and the validation of the taxonomy of each species. The georeference information still needs to be completed.
Method step description:
- Releve data was stored in the software TurboVeg and then exported into species occurrence data. The species list used in TurboVeg was checked by an expert to confirm the valid taxonomy (taking into account taxonomy changes, synonyms, etc)(Guido van Reenen, paramo species list). This list was cross-checked with The Plant List (http://www.theplantlist.org/), for the period July 2011 until February 2013 (during this time frame the names where the accepted). All the records are still lacking a georeference with its precision estimation. Also the specific habitat indication needs to be done. But there is a good indication of the locality in the remarks section of the data.
- Sturm H., O. Rangel. 1985. Ecologia de los Paramos Andinos: una visión preliminar integrada. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales - Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Bogota. 292p. n/a
- Pinto-Zarate J. H. and O. Rangel-Ch. 2010. la vegetacion de los paramos del norte de Colombia (Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Serrania del Perija).(289-442p)in: Rangel-Ch, O. 2010 (ed). Colombia Diversidad Biotica X, Cambio global (natural) y climatico (antropico) en el paramo colombiano. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Bogota, Colombia. ISBN 978-958-719-499-9
- Rangel-Ch O. and H. Arrellano-P. 2007. Vegetacion de la alta montana de Perija. (173-192p). In: Rangel-Ch, O. 2007 (ed). Colombia Diversidad Biotica V, La Alta Montana de la Serrania de Perija. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales. 492p. ISBN 978-958-44-1850-0
|Purpose 1: Data in TurboVeg Purpose 2: data converted to species occurrence. Data repatriation to Colombia to be used in actual research.